Human Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Human Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein. Cells known to express VCAM-1 include neurons, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages. Soluble VCAM-1 has been identified in culture supernates, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. VCAM-1 binds to both VLA-4 and LPAM-1 integrins. These integrins (or VCAM-1 ligands) are expressed on a variety of cells, with VLA-4 found on all leukocytes with the exception of neutrophils. Because of this, VCAM-1/VCAM-1 ligand interactions are undoubtedly key events in the rate and timing of leukocyte extravasation. Other roles proposed for VCAM-1 include the regulation of osteoclastogenesis via a cell-to-cell contact mechanism and the induction of sickle cell adherence to vascular endothelial cells during hypoxemia.
The sVCAM-1 assay is a solid phase sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, to be used for the in vitro quantitative determination of Hu sVCAM-1 in human serum, buffered solution, or cell culture medium. The assay will recognize both natural and recombinant Hu sVCAM-1. The standard curve spans the range of 0-75 ng/ml. Samples are diluted to fall within this range. The minimum detectable dose of Hu sVCAM-1 is <0.5 ng/mL. The range of sVCAM for serum of normal healthy individuals values is from 390 to 810 ng/mL with a mean value of 550 ng/mL.